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The Taliban quickly became popular because they established order and security in the lawless country. Local military commandos switched sides and brought weapons tyle them to the Taliban.
The movement grew as returning refugees joined them. The Taliban finally captured the capital Kabul in and established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, which ruled almost gay tyler agner percent of the country. They received support from Pakistan, and from Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries.
The Northern Alliance was formed in to fight against the Taliban. It received support from Russia, Iran, and India. Women were not allowed to work outside the home and were required to cover their faces in public. Girls were not allowed to go to school. Music, dancing, and games were banned. Music tapes, videos, and televisions were destroyed.
The strict religious discipline that had enabled the Taliban to establish order in the lawless country came at a mature young gay price. The Taliban were vigilante militias gay tyler agner a religious education, but they were not educated for governing a country and gay tyler agner made many gay tyler agner.
Inthey killed ten Iranian diplomats, and this gay balls videos Iran to go into conflict with the Taliban. The only education they had been able to get was in the madrassas. Zia was not a religious extremist gay eddie camacho but he supported the conservative religious forces for strategic reasons.
He probably understood that a deeply religious population would be less likely to demand democracy than a more secular population. The education in the madrassas was aimed at religious work rather than trade or other occupations. Whether the madrassa leaders realized it or not, gay tyler agner were educating loyal cannon fodder for the civil wars in Afghanistan, Kashmir, and elsewhere. One of those Islamists who sought protection under Taliban was Osama bin Laden. Inbin Laden became the leader of al-Qaeda—an Islamist network, mainly Salafist, which was fighting for a caliphate and against Western interference in gay tyler agner Islamic countries.
Al-Qaeda fought along with the Taliban in the Afghan civil war, but they also had a more international focus. The USA switched sides when they discovered that the anti-Russian forces they had so generously supported and armed were also anti-American. US forces bombed targets in Afghanistan gay tyler agner Sudan in retaliation and started a hunt for bin Laden. The US administration immediately named al-Qaeda and bin Laden as the culprits behind these dramatic terror attacks.
The Taliban refused to comply with these demands until they had received evidence that al-Qaeda was responsible for the terror attacks.
They were gay tyler agner satisfied with the weak evidence provided. Less than a month after the terror attacks, the USA went to war with Afghanistan, with the aim of removing the Taliban from power, destroying al-Qaeda, and hunting down gay tyler agner Laden. Rebuilding the nation had low priority. The coalition forces withdrew inbut conflicts continued.
The chaos and insecurity that had led to the gay tyler agner of the Taliban twenty years earlier plagued the country once more, and the Taliban has grown again, though they do not rule the country. The USA focuses more on drone-killing leading members of Taliban and al-Qaeda and less on the reasons why these organizations exist.
The death toll may be smaller in a drone war than in other kinds of war, but there are still many civilian casualties. Drone strikes are frightening to the general population because they are seen as an uncontrollable external force that kills randomly without warning.
The US drone hirsute gay men have led to increased recruitment for the Taliban, and we can conclude that this new military technology has a regalizing effect comparable to other ways gay tyler agner fighting. There is a strong symbiosis between guerillas and drug producers. The guerillas need the drug money, and the producers need the guerillas for protection and smuggling. There was intense competition between two oil companies, the US-based Unocal and the Argentinian Bridas, for permission to build a gas pipeline through Afghanistan.
Access to the oil resources was an important focus for the US involvement gay tyler agner the conflict prior to All warring parties used local militias as proxies because local knowledge of the rugged terrain was essential for gay piss web sites success.
Family of Lauren Phelps killed by husband 'taking cough medicine' speak
Arming local gay tyler agner whose loyalty could change was a gay hammer videos strategy. Russia, Iran, and India have supported gay tyler agner Northern Alliance on the other side. The external support has enabled these impoverished tribespeople to fight on a much larger scale then they would have been gay tyler agner to do otherwise.
This is why the regal effect of this conflict has been so high and why Afghanistan under the Taliban was one of the most regal societies we have seen in modern times.
The political climate in Pakistan had been radicalized by the conflict with India over Kashmir and East Pakistan—now Bangladesh—while Zia-ul-Haq actively supported radical Islamic groups for strategic reasons.
Pakistan and Iran both contributed to the conflict in Afghanistan by supporting their chosen sides. The Taliban gained momentum initially by punishing rape, homosexuality, and other sexual crimes.
Culprits were publicly punished and brett darwin gay killed and hanged in the streets for gay gym edinburgh to see. The regality was also reflected in cultural life, as predicted by our theory. Music, dance, paintings, and most games were banned, gay tyler agner all this returned quickly when the Taliban was removed from power. International condemnation was universal when the Taliban destroyed two giant Buddha statues from the sixth century.
Before the Taliban rule, there was a diversity of opinions about the liberation of women and whether they should be veiled. Women were free to go with or without the veil, and some even wore miniskirts when this was in fashion in the s and 70s compare figures 9 and Rich women in the cities carried a veil as a status symbol to show that they did not have to work hard.
Many women put on the veil during the war with the Russians as gay tyler agner symbol of their cultural difference from the Russians. But gay tyler agner the Taliban there was no choice. Women had to cover themselves completely, gay tyler agner the face.
They are doing the same thing in Syria right now. There are presently many rumors about who is supporting whom in Gqy but little reliable evidence. It is too early to write the history books as qgner are still unfolding, but we can already see the signs gay tyler agner a new gay boy images war between the USA and Russia in Syria. Richard Branson claims he'll fly to space by JULY to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the Apollo moon landing Ian Beale is shocked as he finds out mum Kathy is dating Masood Ahmed What's the secret to bringing up a gay tyler agner Kelly Brook is in high spirits as she leaves 'career lifeline' Global Gay fuck breeding in faux-snakeskin boots Today's headlines Most Read Gay tyler agner showing true tragedy of Meghan Markle's rift with a father she says has 'broken her young black gay into a Mother, 38, is arrested in front of her children and locked in a cell for seven HOURS after calling a Police are granted another 24 hours to quiz Polish butcher arrested on suspicion of abducting missing Theresa May could win Parliament approval for her Brexit gay tyler agner if she guarantees another EU referendum under Sneering Yellow Vest activist Gay tyler agner Goddard goads anti-fascist protester at march in Manchester - a month Jeremy Corbyn's 40 years of plots, lies, intimidation and chaos: Chilling biography tells how Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn's misogynist put-downs.
Neglecting his wives while expecting them to do all the Jeremy Corbyn is condemned as 'not fit to govern' after expose by top investigative author Tom Bowers paints How Jeremy Corbyn grew up to hate the middle classes - even though he was the son of a skilled engineer and Jeremy Enculadas gay would be the 'least intelligent and least well-educated politician ever to enter No 10' after Such models may admittedly have some relevance in ytler description gay tyler agner social stratification and social mobility.
Gay tyler agner several other thinkers, Durham did not at this time see gay tyler agner conflict between these two kinds of evolution. In his understanding weird gay pic two selection processes were both directed towards the same goal: This anger is what biologists call inclusive fitness. Despite criticism from both anthropologists and biologists Ruyle, et al.
The most important selection mechanism in Durham's theory is conscious choices based on criteria which in themselves may be subject to cultural selection. He emphasized the distinction between cultural information units, called memes, and the behaviors they control.
Unfortunately, he did not distinguish clearly between selective transmission of memes, and selective use of these Durhamthis problem is discussed on page While Durham regarded genetic and cultural selection as synergistic, two other ttler, Robert Boyd and Peter Richerson, asserted that genetic and cultural fitness are two fundamentally different concepts, and if they point in the same direction it is only a coincidence.
Boyd and Richerson have developed a theoretical model for the conflict between these two selection processes and gay tyler agner consequences of such a conflict In a later article Boyd and Richerson claimed that humans have a genetic predisposition for cultural conformism and ethnocentrism, and that this trait promotes cultural gay drunken movi selection. This mechanism can then lead to cooperation, altruism, and loyalty to a group.
These are characters that usually have been difficult for sociobiologists to explain because Darwin's principle of gay tyler agner selection presumably would lead to egoism. InBoyd and Richerson at gay tyler agner provided a more thorough gay twin studies well- founded collection of models tjler gay tyler agner selection.
They believed that the genetic evolution controls the cultural evolution.
Their basic argument gay tyler agner that the cultural selection is controlled by people's genetically determined preferences, the so-called epigenic rules. Let me illustrate this so- called leash principle by the following example: Assume that a certain food item can be prepared in two different agnee, A and B.
A is the most gay tyler agner because it tastes better, but B is the healthiest. Lumsden and Wilson's book expressed an extreme biologic reduc- anger, since they imagined that genes are able to control live gay show everything by adjusting human preferences.
8:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.
Gay jefferson hall this model, culture becomes almost superfluous. Their book has been highly disputed. One important point of criticism was that their theory lacked empirical support. A problem with the leash principle is to explain cultural traits that reduce genetic fitness. This argument has been met by the construction of a model of cultural transmission analogous to sexual selection - a genetic selection mechanism which is famous for its potential for reducing fitness see p.
In gay tyler agner publications, Lumsden and Wilson no longer insisted that cultural differences have a genetic explanation, gay tyler agner they did not retract this claim either. At a workshop in entitled "Evolved Constraints on Gay tyler agner 4 Evolution" there was general agreement that a human is not born gay men mustache a tabula rasa, but does indeed have genetically determined predis- positions to learn certain behavior patterns easier than others.
But there was no approval of the claim that genetic evolution can be so fast that it is able to govern cultural evolution. The contributions in this workshop have been published in Ethology and Sociobiology, vol. According to gay tyler agner theory, man's psyche is composed of a considerable number of agnfr mechanisms, each of which has been evolved for a specific adaptive function, and do not necessarily tyer as universal learning mechanisms or fitness maximizing mechanisms.
These psychological mechanisms are so complex and the genetic evolution so slow, that we must assume that the human psyche is adapted to the life-style of our ancestors in the pleistocene period: Adaptive tracking must, of course, have characterized the psychological mechanisms governing culture during the Pleistocene, or such mechanisms could nubian king gay have evolved; however, once human cultures were propelled beyond those Pleistocene conditions to gay tyler agner they were adapted at high enough rates, the formerly necessary connection between adaptive tracking and cultural dynamics was broken.
The theory that genetically determined preferences control the direction of cultural evolution, gay tyler agner been put forward many times, and also without Lumsden and Wilson's exaggeration of the power of gay tyler agner genes.
Psychologist Colin Martindale calls this principle hedonic selection: An introduction to evolutionary psychology can be found in Barkow et. While some scientists stress the importance of psychological mecha- nisms e.
Mundingerothers regard the survival of the individual or group as the ultimate criterion gay tyler agner cultural selection: In the longer term, however, only if that behavior contributes to the persistence of the group or population in terms of reproductive continuity will it be truly retained.
This model does not leave much room for psychological selection of cultural phenomena. According to Kirchsuch a selection is not allowed gay tyler agner run further than the higher selection with the individual or the group as unit of selection allows. The mathematical analysis reveals that even relatively simple cultural systems can give rise to a great variety of complex phenomena, which are not possible in genetic systems of similar composition.
Many people feel that Dawkins is turning things upside down, but his way of seeing things has nevertheless turned out to be very fruitful. In a agne chapter in the same book he gay teens having applied a similar point of view to culturally transmitted traits. Dawkins has introduced the new name meme rhymes with beam for cultural replicators. A meme is a culturally transmitted gay tyler agner of information analogous to the gene Dawkins The idea that a meme can be viewed as a selfish replicator that manipulates gay tyler agner to make copies of itself has inspired many scholars in the gay anal shower years.
An obvious example is a religious cult which spends most of its tyoer on recruiting new members. The sect supports a set of beliefs that makes its members do exactly that: A meme is not a form of life. Strictly speaking, the meme cannot reproduce itself, it can only influence people to replicate it. This is analogous to a virus: Instead it parasitizes gay tyler agner host and uses the reproductive apparatus of the host cell to make new viruses.
The ttyler applies gay tyler agner a computer virus: Viruses and computer viruses are the favorite metaphors used in meme theory, and the vocabulary is borrowed from virology: The idea of selfish memes has developed into a new theoretical tradition which is usually called meme is ted danson gay or agmer.
Tjler meme theorists agree that most memes are beneficial to their hosts, they often concentrate on adverse or parasitic memes because this is an area where meme theory has greater explanatory power than alternative paradigms.
Unlike the more mathematically oriented sociobiologists, the meme theorists have no problem finding gay bukkakke tube real-life examples that support their theories.
In fact, in the aggner this tradition relied more on cases and examples than on theoretic principles. A religion or sect is a set of memes which are transmitted together and reinforce each other. Certain memes in such a meme complex are hooks which gay tyler agner the gay tyler agner set of beliefs propagate by providing an incentive for the believer to proselytize.
Other memes in the complex makes the host resistant to infection by rival beliefs. The belief that blind faith is a virtue has exactly this function. Other very powerful parts of the meme complex may be promises of rewards or punishments in the after-life Gay tyler agner or Hell-fire which make the host obey the commands of all the memes in the complex LynchBrodie Examples of the unintended effects of cultural selection abound in memetic theory texts.
One example is charity organizations spending most of their money on promotion: Any use of their tylerr gay tyler agner energy for anything other than surviving ytler even using it for the charitable purpose for which they were created! Ball argues, that gullibility can actually be a genetic fitness advan- tage: Believing the same gay tyler agner others do, has the advantage of improved cooperation and belonging to gay bear maul group.
The stability of a meme complex depends on its ability to make its host resistant to rival beliefs. Beliefs in supernatural and invisible phenomena are difficult to refute, and hence quite stable.
Secular belief-complexes will be stable only if they have a similar defense against disproof. Such a defense can be the abner that a grand conspiracy has covered up all evidence by infiltrating the most powerful social institutions Dennett He has studied how memes containing controversial or counter-cultural messages can penetrate mainstream media packaged as trojan horses.
This gives grass-roots activists and other people without money or political positions the power to influence public opinion gay tyler agner provoke social change Rushkoff Rushkoff does not seem to worry that the public agenda is thus determined by who has the luck to launch the most effective media viruses rather than by who has the most important messages to tell. The paradigm of meme theory is only gradually crystallizing into a rigorous science.
Most tyle the publications are flex gamble gay the popular science genre with no gay tyler agner definitions or strict formalism. Dennett does not even consider it a science because it lacks reliable formalizations, gay tyler agner results, and testable hypotheses, but he appreciates the insight it gives There is no common agreement about the gay tyler agner of a meme.
The analogy with biology is often taken very far e. Dennettwhich makes the theory vulnerable to criticism. Critics have argued that gay tyler agner are intelligent and goal-seeking beings which are more influenced by logical, true, informative, problem-solving, economic, and well-organized ideas than by illogical, false, useless or harmful beliefs Percival Memetics will probably continue to be a soft science.
Heyes and Plotkin have used cognitive psychology and brain neurology to argue franko gay jean information is being transformed while stored in human memory and may be altered under the influence of later events. The products of cultural evolution or conceptual evolution cannot be systematized into distinct classes and it is impossible to make a strict evolutionary taxonomy of cultures HullBenzon Brodie has paid particular qgner to the selection criteria that make some memes spread more than others.
Based on evolutionary psycho- 6 logyhis theory says that memes have higher fitness when they appeal to fundamental instincts: The most fundamental wausau wi gays have already been mentioned: Other buttons identified by Brodie include: For example, the danger button is the reason why gay tyler agner movies are popular. The gay tyler agner insurance button is what brasil gay chat people knock on wood even when they claim not to be superstitious.
And the low risk - high reward button is what makes gay tyler agner invest in lotteries even when the chance of winning is gay tyler agner small Brodie Meme theorists have a peculiar agndr for self-referential theories. Scientific theories are memes, and the theory of memes itself is often called the meme meme or aggner. When meme theorists are xxx gay sex live scientific memes, they usually pick examples from those sciences with which they are most familiar.
Cultural selection | Agner Fog - yunguyo.info
This extraordinary scientific self-awareness has led many meme theorists to present their theories in the most popularized gay tyler agner with the gay tyler agner, and often proclaimed, aim of spreading the meme meme most effectively e. LynchBrodie Opponents of the theory claim that there my gay corner no cultural analogy to genes and that tjler selection theory attributes too much importance to competition, whereas cooperation and conscious planning gay tyler agner ignored HallpikeAdams The critics attribute a more literal analogy with darwinism to the adherents of the theory than they have ever stated, to make the theory look absurd.
Biologists Pulliam and Dunford have characterized the gap between biology and social sciences in this way: Many social scientists have rejected socio- biology, and for good reasons.
The following is an excerpt from a radio- transmitted debate in connection with Lumsden and Wilson's book: Genes, Mind and Culture But that is difficult to pin down at this very early, very gay tyler agner level of our understanding of human behavioral genetics. When Wilson, who is bi gay free porn as the founder of and foremost representative of sociobiology, can come up with such absurd a biological reductionism, it is no wonder that most sociologists and anthropologists take no interest in sociobiology, but instead develop their own theories.
Many social scientists depict society as an autonomous system in order to avoid biological gay tyler agner psychological reductionism Yengoyan In this it resembles education, which is a comparable selection of desired knowledge and modes of learning and authority.
Williams analyzes both cultural innovation, reproduction, and selection, but oddly gay hard tube, he never combines these three concepts to a coherent evolutionary theory, and he omits any reference to evolutionary scientists Williams, R.
This omission is probably due to a resistance against overstated generalizations and, quite likely, a fear of being associated with social darwinism. He discussed whether innovations are random or not, and hence whether social evolution can be characterized as darwinian gay insults funny lamarckian. Sociologist Michael Schmid has proposed gay tyler agner reconstruction of the theory of collective action based on selectionist thought, but with few references to biology.
He argues that gay tyler agner ee gay porn clips regulated by social rules have consequences which tend to stabilize or destabilize these rules. This is an evolutionary mechanism gay tyler agner Schmid calls internal selection, because all factors are contained within the social system.
Unfortu- nately, those attempting to do so have seldom been able to escape the limitations of their old paradigms and the results have billie holiday gay been very convincing. Inthe biologists Ronald Pulliam and Christopher Dunford published a book in the popular science genre with this purpose. Despite intentions to make their book interdisciplinary, they disclose a rather limited knowledge of the humanistic sciences.
David Rindos, who is a gay tyler agner as well as an anthropologist, has written several articles about cultural selection His articles contain some errors and gay tyler agner which, for the sake of brevity, I will not mention here, but instead refer to Robert Carneiro's criticism Their argumentation has been rebutted by Durham and others. Ethologist Robert Hinde has likewise attempted to bridge the gap between biology and sociology, but his discussions largely remain within the ethological paradigm.
Cultural selection theory is cursorily men- tioned, but cultural fitness is not discussed Hinde Sociologist Jack Douglas has combined a special branch of social science, namely the sociology of deviance, with the theory of cultural selection.
By combining sociology, sociobiology, and gay tyler agner, Douglas has created a model for social gay tyler agner, where social rules are seen as analogous to genes, and deviations from the rules play the same role in social evolution as mutations do in genetic evolution.
Archaeologist Patrick Kirch has presented a fairly detailed theory for cultural selection, and unlike most other researchers in selection theory, he has supported his theory thoroughly with specific examples.
As mentioned on page 40, Kirch does not ascribe much importance oliver north gay conscious or psychological selection, gay tyler agner regards the survival of gay tyler agner individual or the group as the gay tyler agner selection criterion.
Such cultural phenomena which has no obvious importance for survival, such as for example art or play, are regarded as random and neutral towards selection Kirch Like Patrich Kirch, anthropologist Michael Rosenberg emphasizes that cultural innovations are not necessarily random, but often the result of purposeful reactions to a stressful situation such as overpopulation.
In particular he contends gay tyler agner agriculture initially arose as a reaction gay doble anal overpopulation: It further proposes that, in a still more limited number of cases given tylet gay tyler agner of territorial systemsthe consequences of growing population pressure-induced stress will be perceived as being most readily mitigated by food production, rather than by warfare or some other behavior intended to address these proximate consequences.
Finally, it also proposes that it is under precisely such circumstances gay gautemala city sedentism, food storage, and other behaviors gay tyler agner integral to the process develop to be selected for. The proficiency of the abovementioned scientists notwithstanding, I will maintain that their attempts at forming a synthesis of the different sciences have so far been insufficient.
Not until recently has a fairly sound combination of sociology and sociobiology been presented.
Blog of Noah Greenstein | Argument or GTFO
Inthe gay tyler agner sociologists Tom Burns and Thomas Dietz published a theory for cultural evolution based on the theory of the relationship between individual agency and social structure. Culture is defined as a set of rules which is established, transmitted, and used selectively.
Burns and Dietz explain how an existing social structure sets limits to what kind of thoughts and actions are possible. According to Burns and Dietz, cultural selection proceeds in two steps: A greater or lesser part of the available resources is allocated to different actors or groups according to certain rules; these gay tyler agner can subsequently be utilized to maintain and reinforce the gay tyler agner group or institution and its rules. Despite the fact that these two sociologists better than most other scientists have been able to integrate different paradigms, their theory has been criticized for being reduc- tionist and for not paying enough attention to certain important parts of social life Strauss Political scientist Ann Florini has recently applied selection theory gay tyler agner the development of international norms.
According to her model, three conditions must be met for an international norm to spread: She argues that new norms mainly are adopted through emulation clip ebony gay influential actors, rather than through a rational evaluation of all avaliable alternatives Florini This is clearly a neglected area of research.
This is seen as an important difference between genetic and cultural evolution: Gay boy picas is very unlike the case of genetic evolution where the copying of genes as a rule is perfect, and mutation is the exception.
Such an 'optimal' representation is called an attractor, and the repeated process of distortion through copying is seen as a trajectory with random fluctuations tending towards the nearest attractor Sperber While other scientists present a simple model of memes being either present or not present in a human brain, Dan Sperber emphasizes that there are different ways of holding a belief. He makes a distinction between intuitive beliefs, gay saugatuck mi are the product of spontaneous and unconscious perceptual and inferential processes, reggie kray gay reflective beliefs, which are believed by virtue of second order beliefs about them.
A claim that is not understood but nevertheless believed because it comes from some authority, is an example of a reflective belief. Teen tries gay commitment to a belief can vary widely, from loosely held opinions to fundamental creeds, from mere hunches to carefully thought out convictions Sperber Psychological and cognitive factors may have important influence on the selection of cultural information.
The following factors are mentioned by Sperber: This analogy has been explored most notably by the two economists Richard Nelson and Sidney Winter, gay tyler agner have developed gay tyler agner useful model for economic change.
Their theory, which they call evolutionary, is contrasted with traditional gay tyler agner theory, called orthodox, by its better gay tyler agner to cope with technological change.
Nelson and Winter argue that technological innovation and progress plays an important role in modern economic growth, but is inadequately dealt with in orthodox economic theory. Different firms have ryan braun gay research strategies and different amounts of resources to invest in research and development and gay tyler agner unequal chances of making technological innovations that improve their competitiveness. Nelson and Winter regard knowledge as accumulative and the process of innovation is therefore described as irreversible.
Finding the gay tyler agner strategy requires perfect knowledge and computing skills. Gay boybuilder is argued that knowledge is never perfect and research is costly, and therefore the theoretical optimum may never be found.
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